December 12, 2018
Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Ear, Throat, Nose and Speech (the Ministry of Health) is a modern scientific medical center.
The clinical department employs the vast spectrum of the modern surgical operations on ORL-organs and the new methods of conservative treatment of ORL-disorders. Thus, the ear re-constructive surgery clinic according to its profile specializes in surgical treatment of chronic otitis with effusion, otosclerosis, Meniere disease, in the operations on the facial nerve etc. The Institute research workers were the first in this country to handle operations on acoustic nerve tumours through translabyrinthal approach. A device for express diagnosis of middle ear viral lesions and an effective method for this desease treatment have been designed.
The upper respiratory tract pathology clinic is involved in treatment of nasal cavities pathology, nose, pharynx, and larynx diseases. Methods of immune system correction in patients with chronic rhino-sinusitis of infectious and allergic origin are carried out here. Various operations on maxilliary cavities in patients with cysts have been practitioned. Pathophysiologically grounded methods of laryngeal stenosis treatment are elaborated as well. Extralaryngeal approaches to vocal folds and endolaryngeal microsurgery have been performed besides a laryngofissural one. The techniques of surgical treatment are constantly improved in the clinic: micro-surgery, criosurgery, lowfrequency ultrasound energy and other techniques diminishing the risk, of trauma during operations have been developed.
The surgical clinic for children is engaged in conservative and surgical treatment of patients suffering from pathological lymphadenoids in pharyngeal and nasal cavities. Particular attention is paid to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of middle and inner ear pathology in children. Operations aimed at preserving or improving audition are performed in cases of middle ear pathology. A complex method of conservative treatment including specific immunotherapy is employed for children suffering from recurrent and sluggish otitis with effusion. The clinic re-search workers have developed a set of methods of differential diagnosis of ear and equilibrium lesions in children and new methods of conservative and surgical treatment of middle and inner ear diseases employing neuropeptides, new kinds of ferments, implantation of biologically active tissues and so on.
Investigations in children and adults are exercised in the hearing physiology and pathology department. Diagnostic methods include audiological tests for hearing sensitivity, acoustic impedance measurements, computer audiometry etc. For the first time in the world diagnostic method employing amplitude modulated ultrasound has been designed. Studies in binaural hearing employing static and moving sound images and non-standard tests on adaptation have been carried out. Through combination of vestibulometrical and electrophysiological methods it was made possible to exercise a thorough check-up and early diagnosis of acoustic nerve tumours. New ways in diagnosis and treatment of neurosensorial deafness have been installed. For a number of years a group of children's audiologists and teachers have been working successfully over a method of early diagnosis and' rehabilitation of hearing impairments in children. Non standard diagnostic methods are employed in cases of hearing central impairments. The department engineering group has produced and successfully applied a number of modern audiological instruments and devices.
The main goal of the laboratory department is to organize and put into effect the clinical investigations conducted in cooperation with co-workers of other departments. Basic data characterizing homeostasis, indicating local and general immunity are obtained by means of a large range of modern biochemical, microbiological, pathomorphological, and immunological tests. Microbiology unit has invented a method for estimation of tonsils' functional state which enables physicians to make a choice between conservative or surgical treatment. Biochemistry workers have implemented an effective method of differential diagnosis of hearing impairments besides. Immunology unit actively participates in the programme of treatment optimization and prophylactics of recurrent ORL-diseases by means of immunity correction with the help of the drugs of natural origin.
The speech and voice pathology department deals with the following types of speech impairments in children and adults: aphasia, cleft palate, laryngeal paresis and paralysis, stuttering etc. Rehabilitation of patients with speech pathology is executed in two hospital clinics (for children and adults correspondingly), rehabilitation of patients with voice dysfunctions takes place in one of the clinics as well as in phoniatrics room. Speech therapy is exercised by variety of specialists speech therapists, otorhinolaryngologists, phoniatricians, psychoneurologists, psychologists, and others, thus making it possible to realize an interdisciplinary approach to the problem. Various types of microsurgery, electrostimulation of larynx, drug therapy as well as phonopedic methods of voice correction are employed in the treatment of voice disorders. Treatment programmes performed in the institute are constantly improved on the basis of results obtained in laboratory investigations. Particular attention is attached to objective instrumental methods of differential diagnosis and to quantitative estimation of therapy effectiveness.
The institute has a scientific library founded in' 1930. It comprises books and magazines on ORL, speech pathology; phoniatrics, surdology and books on related subjects. Its fund contains rare books and magazines of the XIX-th and the beginning of the XX-th centuries. Research workers and physicians from Saint-Petersburg and areas attached to the institute enjoy the services of the library besides the institute research workers themselves. Bibliographical reference books dealing with various ORL subjects are issued periodically.
Publishing activities. A collection of scientific papers written by the institute research workers and about 5 instructions on methodology and practical recommendations are issued per year. About 50 scientific articles are published in magazines and other editions. Within 60 years the institute specialists have published 40 monographs, defended their theses for 23 degrees of doctors of -medicine and 95 degrees of candidates of science. The institute has permanently been performing consultative, organizational and methodic assistance to public health services of Saint-Petersburg and areas attached to the institute. Every year 3 or 4 scientific conferences of otorhinolaryngologists, speech therapists, phoniatricians, and surdologists are held. The institute research workers take part in all regular congresses of otorhinolaryngologists and deliver reports on vital issues. They also participate in International Congresses, symposia, and conferences.
Each 5 years the institute organizes Congress ENT-society of Russia. The congress collects more than 1000 participants from all areas of the country.
Every year the institute clinics render qualified specialized help to 5,000 patients and first aid service to nearly 19,000 persons. Annually about 30,000 patients take medical advice and care at surgery, surdology and phoniatrics consultative rooms being directed there by ORL-physicians of Saint-Petersburg polyclinics and from areas of the Russia.
The institute has become a perfect school for bringing up research workers and physicians for public health services. Every year more than 60 physicians, 100 speech therapists, 10 surdology teachers, and 30 nurses are invited to work here temporarily to improve their professional skills. From 5 to 8 ORL-physicians undergo clinical studies at the institute clinics at the same time. The People's university of progress in medical knowledge for Saint-Petersburg otorhinolaryngologists carries out his work within the institute. Leading institute specialists, professors as well as lecturers of high qualification from other medical institutions are invited to deliver lectures here. The attestation commission dealing with giving qualification categories to otorhinolaryngologists works on the basis of the institute as well.